It is a reaction where an atom, ion or molecule wastes electrons and the reduction is incumbent on the electron gain of an atom, ion or molecule. Both oxidation and reduction obey the change in the oxidation state of the atom, that is, the difference in the charge of the atom in a reaction.
These reactions occur frequently and are generally known as oxidation-reduction reactions or redox reactions. For example, combustion and corrosion are oxidation-reduction reactions.
It is the loss of electrons by a molecule, atom or ion. An element is oxidized when it loses electrons in a reaction; this is confirmed by the increase in the oxidation state of the atom. The higher the oxidation state of an atom, the higher the level of oxidation.
This word was first mentioned in the 18th century thanks to the work of the French chemist Antoine Lavoisier when he confirmed the oxygen in the air. At that time, all reactions where oxygen was a reactant and were narrated as oxidation reactions.
Partial oxidation equation
It is the point of the general reaction where the element that supports oxidation and the growth of electrons that are withdrawn from it on the right side of the products are revealed. For example, in the corrosion reaction of aluminum:
4Al + 3O2 → 2Al2O3 the partial oxidation equation for aluminum is:
Al0→ Al+3 + 3e-
The oxidation state of aluminum in its elemental state is 0 (zero) and it is oxidized to the aluminum ion with a +3 oxidation step; that is, the oxidation state of aluminum increases.
Oxidizing and oxidizing agents
It’s everything that causes another chemical to be oxidized. For example, when magnesium reacts with oxygen to form magnesium oxide:
2Mg(s) + O2(g)→ 2MgO(s),
Oxygen causes magnesium to lose electrons, therefore oxygen is the oxidizing agent and magnesium is the chemical being oxidized. Metals, such as iron, copper, and magnesium, oxidize quickly.
Examples of oxidation reactions
The dehydrogenation of methanol to formaldehyde:
CH3OH → H2C=O
The magnesium atom loses two electrons and becomes the magnesium ion:
The innovation of alcohol in vinegar is an oxidation reaction:
CH3CH2OH → CH3COOH
It is the gain of electrons by a molecule, atom or ion. A unit is compressed when it gains electrons in a reaction. This is rectified by the lowering of the oxidation state. The lower the oxidation state of an atom, the greater the degree of decrease.
For example, the ion exchange copper, with oxidation state 2+, is converted to solid copper, with oxidation state 0:
Cu2+(aq) + 2e- → Cu(s)
This word comes from the Latin word reduco which means (to restore). The course of metal extraction was taken as the recovery of the metal from its mineral compounds, such as iron from iron oxide or copper from copper II oxide.
Partial reduction equation
It is part of the general reaction where the element that digests reduction and the set of electrons it receives on the left side of the reactants is known. For example, in the corrosion reaction of aluminum:
4Al + 3O2 → 2Al2O3. The partial oxygen reduction equation is:
O0 + 2e-2 → O-2
The oxidation state of oxygen in its atomic stage is 0 (zero) and it is reduced to an oxide ion with an oxidation state of -2; it means, that it is the oxidation state of oxygen goes from 0 to -2, it reduces.
Reducing and reducing agents
It causes another chemical to be depleted, for example, when magnesium reacts with oxygen to form magnesium oxide:
2Mg(s) + O2(g)→ 2MgO(s).
Magnesium causes oxygen to gain electrons and magnesium to serve as a reducing agent and oxygen to be minimal.
Metals tend to lose electrons, since they act as reducing agents.
Examples of Reduction Reactions
- Molecular oxygen gains four electrons to become an oxide ion:
O 2 (g) +4e – →2O 2-
- The formation of silver from silver ions:
Ag + (aq) +e – →Ag(s)
Difference between Oxidation and Reduction in tabular form
|Definition||Semi reaction where an atom, ion or molecule loses electrons.||Semi reaction where an atom, ion or molecule generates many electrons.|
|key concept||Oxidation is loss of electrons.||Reduction is gain of electrons.|
|partial equation||Zn→ Zn2+ + 2e-||Cu2++ 2e-→ Cu|
|agents involved||The oxidizing agent is the one that traps the electrons.
The oxidized agent is the one that loses electrons.
|The reducing agent is the one that supplies the electrons.
The reduced agent is the one that gains the electrons.
|examples||Oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde:
CH3OH→ CH2O +H2
Passage of the magnesium atom Mg to magnesium ion Mg2+
|Silver formation from silver ions.
Passage of molecular oxygen O 2 to oxide O -2